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Lesson Notes


  • climate: климат
  • season: сезон
  • spring: пролет (f)
  • summer: лято
  • autumn: есен (f)
  • winter: зима
  • sun: слънце
  • snow: сняг
  • rain: дъжд
  • wind: вятър
  • fog: мъгла
  • cloud: облак
  • sky: небе
  • storm: буря
  • hurricane: ураган
  • flood: наводнение
  • forecast: прогноза


  • hot: горещ
  • cold: студен
  • warm: топъл
  • freezing: мразовит
  • хубав: fine


  • to shine: грея (-е)
  • to blow: духам


We noted the gender exceptions in red. Apart from this, the following words have irregular inflections:

  • The plural of лято is лета
  • The plural of слънце is слънца
  • The plural of сняг is снегове, and the definite form is снегът/снега
  • The plural of вятър is ветрове


"Има слънце" or "Слънчево е" - It's sunny
"Студено е" - It's cold
"Какво е времето днес?" - How's the weather today?
"Слънцето грее" - The sun is shining

As you can see, there are two common ways of saying "It's sunny". You can literally say "There is sun", or use a more literal translation from English, by using the adjective "слънчев" (sunny).

Unfortunately there is no rule for forming the adjectives from the nouns. The adjective forms will have to be memorized like new words:

  • слънце (sun) ➜ слънчев (sunny)
  • дъжд (rain) ➜ дъждовен (rainy)
  • сняг (snow) ➜ снежен (snowy)
  • вятър (wind) ➜ ветровит (windy)
  • мъгла (fog) ➜ мъглив (foggy)
  • облак (cloud) ➜ облачен (cloudy)

The implied subject in "Студено е" or "Слънчево е" is "времето" (the weather), which is a neuter noun. That is why you have to use the neuter forms of the adjective in those sentences. You could also say "Времето е слънчево".

"Вали дъжд" - It's raining
"Вали сняг" - It's snowing
"Времето е хубаво" - The weather is fine

You can imagine "вали" as meaning "it's falling" (from the verb валя, only used with the 3rd person). It is followed by what is falling (rain, hail, snow…). "вали" can also be used alone - in this case it is usually assumed that it is raining. The past aorist is "валя" (it rained).

"Хубав" usually means "pretty" or "beautiful", but in the context of the weather, can be translated as "good", "nice" or "fine".


Exercise 1

слънце, дъжд, сняг, вятър, мъгла, грея, духам


Exercise 2

време, прогноза, облак, небе, мразовит, топъл, хубав


Exercise 3

лято, зима, пролет, есен, сезон, ураган, буря, наводнение