Relative Pronouns

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Lesson Notes

Relative Pronouns

In English, the same word "who" is used in those 2 sentences:

Who lives here?
The man who lives here is very old.

However, in the 1st sentence, "who" is an interrogative pronoun, used to ask a question, and in the 2nd sentence, it is a relative pronoun, referring to the man.

In Bulgarian, those are translated by 2 different words:

"Кой живее тук?" - Who lives here?
"Мъжът, който живее тук, е много стар" - The man who lives here is very old

As you can see, the relative pronoun is formed by adding -то to the interrogative pronoun. And like interrogative pronouns, relative pronouns have to agree in gender and number with the noun they refer to:

Sing. Masc. Sing. Fem. Sing. Neu. Plural
who/which който която което които
whom когото която което които
whose чийто чиято чието чиито
as какъвто каквато каквото каквито


"Човекът, чието куче ти видя" - The person whose dog you saw
"Градът, какъвто аз го знаех" - The city as I knew it

Note that the accusative of "who" ("whom") changes for the masculine gender only:

"Той е мъж, когото обичам" - He is the man (whom) I love
"Тя е жената, която обичам" - She is the woman (whom) I love


Although this is a lesson about the relative pronouns, we will also include a few adverbs that are similarly formed from interrogative adverbs:

"Къде живееш?" - Where do you live?
"Това е където живея" - This is where I live

къде (where?) където (where)
кога (when?) когато (when)
защо (why?) защото (because)
как (how?) както (as)
откъде (where from?) откъдето (from where, whence)
накъде (where to?) накъдето (to where)
колко (how much/many?) колкото (as much/many as)


"Ще ти кажа, когато те видя" - I will tell you when I see you
"Както виждаш, тук съм!" - As you see, I'm here!
"В градината съм, откъдето мога да видя къщата" - I'm in the garden, from where I can see the house
"Ще отида накъдето ми кажеш" - I'll go where you tell me


Exercise 1

който, чийто, какъвто, когото, последно


Exercise 2

където, когато, защото, както, откъдето, накъдето, колкото