People

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Lesson Notes

Vocabulary

  • person: човек
  • people: хора, души
  • mister: господин (г-н)
  • madam: госпожа (г-жа)
  • miss: госпожица (г-ца)
  • population: население
  • inhabitant: жител
  • employee: служител
  • boss: шеф
  • neighbor: съсед
  • partner: партньор
  • boyfriend/girlfriend: гадже
  • victim: жертва
  • tourist: турист
  • enemy: враг
  • witness: свидетел
  • adult: възрастен
  • teenager: младеж
  • king: крал, цар
  • queen: кралица, царица

The plural of човек can be човеци (normal plural), човека (numeral plural), but хора or души are more common (specific words for "people"). "Хора" is not used when counting, though:

"The people in the garden" - Хората в градина
"They are rich people" - Те са богати човеки
"I have a reservation for 2 people" - Имам резервация за двама души
"How many people are in the room?" - Колко човека са в стаята?

The English words мадам and мис are also acceptable in place of госпожа and гроспожица. In Bulgarian, the words господин, госпожа and госпожица can be used as a title (as in Mr Borisov), or as a polite way to refer to someone (as in "Who's this gentleman?").

In Bulgarian, there is only one gender-neutral word for boyfriend or girlfriend: гадже. If you want to specify it, you can use приятел (boyfriend) or приятелка (girlfriend), even though they do not necessarily imply a romantic relationship.

Irregularities

The plural of господин is господа. The plural of население is населения and this plural form applies to most words ending in -ие.

Nouns representing people and ending in -ел typically use -ят/-я as the definite article:

приятел ➜ приятелят/приятеля
жител ➜ жителят/жителя
служител ➜ служителят/служителя
свидетел ➜ свидетелят/свидетеля

The same goes for these two:

крал ➜ кралят/краля
цар ➜ царят/царя

Feminine Forms

Most words representing people have a feminine form ending in -ка that can be used to specify that the person is a female:

служителка: a female employee
шефка: a female boss
туристка: a female tourist
etc.

Exercises

Exercise 1

човек, души, хора, население, жител, служител, шеф

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Exercise 2

господин, госпожа, госпожица, съсед, партньор, познавам, Ню Йорк

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Exercise 3

гадже, турист, възрастен, младеж, все още

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Exercise 4

жертва, враг, свидетел, крал, кралица, винаги

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2018-11-23T14:04:39.1729175Z