- mother: майка
- father: баща (m)
- mom: мама
- dad: татко (m)
- parent: родител
- daughter: дъщеря
- son: син
- child: дете
- brother: брат
- sister: сестра
- husband: съпруг
- wife: съпруга
- cousin (male): братовчед
- cousin (female): братовчедка
- uncle: чичо (m)
- aunt: леля
- family: семейство
- grandfather: дядо (m)
- grandmother: баба
- baby: бебе
Grammatical gender exceptions have been noted in red.
There are a lot of exceptions in this group. Apart from родител (parent, masculine), the genders of these words match those of the person being referred to, rather than the word ending.
Other exceptions in plurals and definite forms:
- татко (dad) - plural: татковци
- дете (child) - plural: деца
- брат (brother) - plural: братя
- съпруг (husband) - plural: съпрузи
- чичо (uncle) - plural: чичовци
- дядо (grandfather) - plural: дядовци
- родител (parent) - definite form: родителят*
* the -ят definite article is very common for nouns that represents people and end in -ел
Bulgarians almost exclusively use the word майка (mother), and don't use мама (mom) much. We would also recommend you stick with майка as мама is used in many insults and could therefore sound offensive. They also prefer using баща (father) than татко (dad).
The words for man (мъж) and woman (жена) can also be used informally to mean husband and wife.
The word "cousin" translates to either братовчед (male) or братовчедка (female) depending on the gender of the person.
There is no gender-neutral word for "sibling", you have to use either брат (brother) or сестра (sister). Similary, there is also no word for "grandparent", you have to use either дядо (grandfather) or баба (grandmother).
We use a slightly different form of the numbers 2 to 6 when counting masculine words representing people:
There are also similar forms for numbers 7 to 10 but those are now considered archaic.
"един брат, двама братя" - one brother, two brothers
"трима съпрузи" - three husbands
"две сестри" - two sisters
Family members and possessive pronouns
Most nouns that represent family members do not take a definite article in the singular form when used with a short possessive pronoun:
"майка ми" - my mother
"баща ми" - my father
"брат ми" - my brother
"сестра ми" - my sister
"синът/сина ми" - my son
"детето ми" - my child
"бебето ми" - my baby
"съпругът/съпруга ми" - my husband
"съпругата ми" - my wife
The plural forms always take the definite article:
"братята ми" - my brothers