Family

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Lesson Notes

Vocabulary

  • mother: майка
  • father: баща (m)
  • mom: мама
  • dad: татко (m)
  • parent: родител
  • daughter: дъщеря
  • son: син
  • child: дете
  • brother: брат
  • sister: сестра
  • husband: съпруг
  • wife: съпруга
  • cousin (male): братовчед
  • cousin (female): братовчедка
  • uncle: чичо (m)
  • aunt: леля
  • family: семейство
  • grandfather: дядо (m)
  • grandmother: баба
  • baby: бебе

Grammatical gender exceptions have been noted in red.

Exceptions

There are a lot of exceptions in this group. Apart from родител (parent, masculine), the genders of these words match those of the person being refered to, rather than the word ending.

Other exceptions in plurals and definite forms:

  • татко (dad) - plural: татковци
  • дете (child) - plural: деца
  • брат (brother) - plural: братя
  • съпруг (husband) - plural: съпрузи
  • чичо (uncle) - plural: чичовци
  • дядовци (grandfather) - plural: дядовци
  • родител (parent) - definite form: родителят*

* the -ят definite article is very common for nouns that represents people and end in -ел

Notes

Bulgarians almost exclusively use the word майка (mother), and don't use мама (mom) much. We would also recommend you stick with майка as мама is used many insults and could therefore sound offensive. They also prefer using баща (father) than татко (dad).

The words for man (мъж) and woman (жена) can also be used informally to mean husband and wife.

The word "cousin" translates to either братовчед (male) or братовчедка (female) depending on the gender of the person.

There is no gender-neutral word for "sibling", you have to use either брат (brother) or сестра (sister). Similary, there is also no word for "grandparent", you have to use either дядо (grandfather) or баба (grandmother).

Counting people

We use a slightly different form of numbers 2 to 6 when counting masculine words representing people:

2 двама
3 трима
4 четирима
5 петима
6 шестима

There are also similar forms for numbers 8 to 10 but these are now considered archaic.

Examples

"един брат, двама братя" - one brother, two brothers
"трима съпрузи" - three husbands
"две сестри" - two sisters

Family members and possessive pronouns

Most nouns that represent family members do not take a definite article in singular form when used with a short possessive pronoun:

"майка ми" - my mother
"баща ми" - my father
"брат ми" - my brother
"сестра ми" - my sister
etc.

Exceptions:

"мъжът/мъжа ми" - my husband
"синът/сина ми" - my son
"детето ми" - my child
"бебето ми" - my baby
"съпругът/съпруга ми" - my husband
"съпругата ми" - my wife

The plural forms always take the definite article:

"братята ми" - my brothers

Exercises

Exercise 1

майка, баща, дете, брат, сестра

Start

Exercise 2

мама, татко, дъщеря, син, семейство

Start

Exercise 3

родител, съпруг, съпруга, чичо, леля

Start

Exercise 4

братовчед, братовчедка, бебе, дядо, баба

Start
2018-05-26T16:36:55.0860890Z