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Lesson Notes


  • mouth: уста
  • nose: нос
  • tongue: език
  • tooth: зъб
  • ear: ухо
  • eye: око
  • face: лице
  • head: глава
  • neck: врат, шия
  • arm: ръка
  • shoulder: рамо
  • chest: гръден кош
  • back: гръб
  • finger: пръст
  • foot: ходило
  • hair: коса
  • hand: ръка
  • heart: сърце
  • leg: крак
  • lip: устна

The expression for "chest" is made of an adjective (гръден, from "гръд" - breast, bosom) and a noun ("кош" - basket, crate). Therefore, the definite article goes on the adjective:

"гръдният кош" - the chest

The word for tongue (език) can also mean "language":

"Колко езика говориш?" - How many languages do you speak?

"Врат" and "шия" can be used interchangeably.

The same word "ръка" is used for "arm" and "hand", and the word for leg, "крак", is also frequently used to mean "foot".


The following plurals are irregular:

  • tooth: зъб ➜ зъби
  • ear: ухо ➜ уши
  • eye: око ➜ очи
  • face: лице ➜ лица
  • shoulder: рамо ➜ рамене
  • finger: пръст ➜ пръсти
  • hand: ръка ➜ ръце
  • heart: сърце ➜ сърца
  • leg: крак ➜ крака

Note that for гръб (back), the р and ъ are inverted in all plural and definite forms:
Plural: гърбове, definite: гърбът/гърба.


With body parts, it is useful to know how to express pain:

"Боли ме гърбът" - My back hurts
"Болят ме раменете" - My shoulders hurt
"Имам болки* в гръдния си кош" - I'm having chest pains

* In Bulgarian "болки" would be generally plural in this case, but it can be also used in singular form (болка).

Note that in Bulgarian, it is often more natural to omit the possessive pronouns when it's obvious who the body parts belong to:

"Той яде с ръце" - He is eating with his hands

Here are also a few verbs about senses, that will be helpful for the exercises:

  • to see: виждам (imp.), видя (-и) (per.)
  • to smell: мириша (-e)
  • to taste: опитвам (imp.), опитам (per.)
  • to touch: докосвам (imp.), докосна (-е) (per.)


Exercise 1

ръка, крак, гръб, ухо, лице, зъб


Exercise 2

ръка, пръст, гръден кош, ходило, шия, око, устни


Exercise 3

глава, сърце, нос, уста, рамо, език